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Necrotizing fasciitis: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, risk factors and treatments

Necrotizing fasciitis Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, risk factors and treatments

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious, life-threatening infection that affects the tissue under the skin and can spread quickly. It is a rare, but potentially fatal condition that can cause severe damage to the tissue and organs if left untreated.

In this blog post, we’ll discuss the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, prevention, and risk factors of necrotizing fasciitis. Knowing the signs and symptoms of this infection, as well as how to prevent and treat it, can help save lives.

What is necrotizing fasciitis?

Necrotizing fasciitis, also known as flesh-eating disease, is a rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the tissue beneath the skin, including the fascia and muscles. It is caused by different types of bacteria that invade through breaks in the skin.

The infection quickly spreads and destroys healthy tissue, leading to necrosis, which is death of tissue. Necrotizing fasciitis can spread quickly and lead to life-threatening complications if it’s not treated right away. Early diagnosis and treatment is key to prevent permanent damage or death.

Types of necrotizing fasciitis:

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that affects the tissue just below the skin and can quickly become life-threatening if left untreated. There are several different types of necrotizing fasciitis, each with their own characteristics and complications.

  • Type-I: The most common type is known as type-I necrotizing fasciitis, also called streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. This type is caused by bacteria known as group A streptococcus, which is normally found on the skin or throat but can enter the body through an open wound or surgery. This type of necrotizing fasciitis can be very aggressive and quickly spread throughout the body if left untreated.
  • Type-II: Other types of necrotizing fasciitis include type-II, also called Clostridial necrotizing fasciitis. This type is caused by a family of bacteria known as Clostridium, which can be found in soil and water. Type-II necrotizing fasciitis usually presents with symptoms such as fever and redness of the skin but can become more serious if left untreated.
  • Type-III: This type of necrotizing fasciitis, also known as mixed or polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, is caused by a combination of bacterial species such as Staphylococcus aureus and other anaerobic bacteria. This type of necrotizing fasciitis tends to occur when an individual has a weakened immune system or when an infection spreads from another area of the body.
  • Type-IV: It is caused by a virus such as herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus. This type of necrotizing fasciitis is usually seen in immunocompromised individuals and can cause severe complications if left untreated.


Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by an infection of the tissue beneath the skin that is usually caused by bacteria, such as group A streptococcus, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides.

In rare cases, necrotizing fasciitis can be caused by fungi, viruses, or even parasites. It can occur when these organisms enter the body through any kind of break in the skin, such as a cut, scrape, burn, insect bite, surgical wound, or puncture wound.

Necrotizing fasciitis is also linked to conditions such as diabetes and obesity, which weaken the body’s natural defenses against infection. Other risk factors include weakened immune systems due to medications or chemotherapy, and chronic illnesses such as kidney or liver disease. People who use injection drugs are also at higher risk for developing necrotizing fasciitis.


Necrotizing fasciitis can be a serious and life-threatening infection. Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis may include:

  • Localized pain, redness, swelling, or heat around a wound or a surgical incision
  • A deep, throbbing pain in the infected area
  • Systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and malaise
  • Tenderness, redness, and swelling in the affected area
  • Small red bumps on the skin that are later filled with pus
  • Blisters or blackened areas on the skin
  • Blotchy or discolored patches on the skin; and
  • A foul smell emanating from the infected area.

If you suspect that you have necrotizing fasciitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately as the infection can spread quickly and cause serious complications if left untreated.


Necrotizing fasciitis can be difficult to diagnose, since it can be confused with other conditions such as cellulitis or abscesses. To diagnose necrotizing fasciitis, a doctor will take a medical history and physical examination, including looking for signs of skin damage. Your doctor may also order laboratory tests such as blood tests, imaging tests, and tissue biopsy.

Blood tests can help determine if there is an infection and identify the bacteria that might be causing it. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help doctors look for areas of skin breakdown, tissue death, and abscesses.

A tissue biopsy is the most accurate way to diagnose necrotizing fasciitis. During a biopsy, a small piece of tissue is taken from the affected area and examined under a microscope. This helps doctors to determine if there is an infection and to identify the type of bacteria causing it.

It is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if necrotizing fasciitis is suspected. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing serious complications and even death.


When it comes to treating necrotizing fasciitis, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, surgery, and supportive care.

Antibiotics: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. Intravenous antibiotics are usually administered as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed to help fight the infection. The type of antibiotic will depend on the bacteria causing the infection.

Surgery: Surgery is often necessary to remove dead or infected tissue from the affected area. This may involve cutting away the affected skin and tissues or using a suction device to suck out the bacteria. In some cases, amputation of a limb may be required.

Supportive Care: While undergoing treatment, supportive care may be needed in order to maintain good health. This may include providing nutrition, managing pain, providing oxygen therapy, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the infection.

It is important to note that while treatments can help save lives, they cannot prevent necrotizing fasciitis from occurring. To reduce the risk of this potentially fatal infection, it is important to practice good hygiene and follow preventive measures such as staying up-to-date on vaccinations and taking steps to prevent wound infections.


Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that can have life-threatening complications if not treated quickly. Therefore, it’s important to be aware of the risk factors for the condition and take steps to prevent it.

To reduce the risk of contracting necrotizing fasciitis, it is important to practice good hygiene and take special precautions when dealing with open wounds or cuts. It is also important to seek medical attention right away if any signs of infection such as redness, swelling, or warmth appear near an open wound.

It is also essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle by exercising regularly, eating a nutritious diet, and getting enough rest. Additionally, practicing safe sex by using condoms can help reduce the risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection, which can lead to necrotizing fasciitis.

Finally, people with weakened immune systems should be especially careful to practice good hygiene and stay away from people who may be sick. In addition, people with diabetes, cirrhosis, and HIV/AIDS should be monitored closely for any signs of infection.

By following these simple precautions, you can help reduce your risk of contracting necrotizing fasciitis and other serious infections.

Risk factors:

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but serious condition, and anyone can be at risk. The following factors increase your risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Impaired immune system due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or other conditions
  • Injection drug use
  • Advanced age (over 60)
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Long-term steroid use
  • Recent surgery
  • Chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema
  • Bruises, cuts, or puncture wounds near the affected area
  • Existing infection in the area, such as a urinary tract infection or a sexually transmitted infection
  • Recent viral infection; and
  • Physical trauma.

It’s important to note that many people with these risk factors don’t develop necrotizing fasciitis. However, being aware of them can help you take steps to lower your risk.

How common is necrotizing fasciitis?

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but potentially fatal condition, with estimates of about 700 to 1,500 cases per year in the United States alone. However, some regions may see more or fewer cases than the national average. It is more commonly seen in adults, especially those over the age of 50, and is most common during the summer months. People who have weakened immune systems, such as those with diabetes, are also more likely to develop necrotizing fasciitis.

When it is diagnosed and treated quickly, necrotizing fasciitis can often be cured, but if it is left untreated, it can spread very quickly and result in death. For this reason, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you suspect you may have necrotizing fasciitis.

It is difficult to determine the exact incidence of necrotizing fasciitis due to its rarity and the fact that it can be misdiagnosed as another condition, such as cellulitis or an infection. Additionally, many cases of necrotizing fasciitis go unreported because the person may not have been diagnosed properly or did not receive medical care.

The best way to prevent necrotizing fasciitis is to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding contact with anyone who has an open wound or infection.

In addition, if you are at risk for developing the condition, you should take steps to strengthen your immune system and be aware of any signs of infection. Early recognition and treatment of necrotizing fasciitis can help improve your chances of making a full recovery.

Necrotizing fasciitis self-care:

Self-care is an important part of preventing and treating necrotizing fasciitis. Taking proper care of your body, such as regularly washing and keeping wounds clean, is essential in reducing the risk of infection and helping to speed up recovery.

It’s important to seek medical help as soon as possible if you have any suspicious symptoms or if you are at risk of necrotizing fasciitis due to an existing condition. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for a successful recovery.

Other self-care tips for reducing the risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis include:

  • Avoiding cuts and scrapes by wearing protective clothing when necessary, such as gloves and long pants while gardening or doing yard work.
  • Taking extra care when cleaning wounds, ensuring they are thoroughly cleaned and dressed properly.
  • Avoiding contact with anyone who has an active infection, particularly those with drug-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA.
  • Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables to boost immunity.
  • Practicing good hygiene habits, including regular handwashing.
  • Avoiding areas where necrotizing fasciitis is more common, such as public pools and gyms.

By following these simple steps, you can reduce your risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis and ensure that your body is in the best condition for recovery if you do become infected.

Necrotizing fasciitis vs cellulitis:

Necrotizing fasciitis and cellulitis are two very different skin conditions that can have similar symptoms, and can be mistaken for one another. Although they both involve infection of the skin, necrotizing fasciitis is much more serious and can quickly become life-threatening.

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin’s outer layer and connective tissue, typically caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria. It often appears as an area of redness and swelling, accompanied by warmth and tenderness, and sometimes also with pain. The redness may spread quickly, forming a raised border around it. Cellulitis usually resolves within 2 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, and can be prevented with proper wound care.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, but life-threatening infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissues. It is caused by a mixture of different bacteria, including both aerobic (bacteria that need oxygen to survive) and anaerobic (bacteria that don’t need oxygen to survive). Necrotizing fasciitis can spread very quickly, destroying the infected tissues and causing them to die.

Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include severe pain, fever, chills, swelling, redness, and a darkening of the skin in the affected area. If left untreated, necrotizing fasciitis can cause sepsis or organ failure, and may be fatal. Treatment for necrotizing fasciitis includes antibiotics and surgery to remove dead tissue.

It is important to recognize the difference between these two conditions, as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis. If you suspect you have either condition, seek medical attention immediately.

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